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Australia

Australia Day  26.1.2013

     

 History of Australia continent

The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning „southern“.

Název Austrálie je odvozený z latiského australis, což znamená „jižní“

For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians.

They are called Aboriginal.

Nejméně 40000 let, před osídlením Evropany v 18.století, byla Austrálie obývána původními obyvateli, kteří se nazývají Aboriginové. Ab origin, se dá také přeložit jako „prapůvodní“. Oni sami si říkají původní lidé.

 

After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia’s eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation  to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788.

Po objevení světadílu Holanďany v roce 1606, a v roce 1770 bylo východní území získáno Velkou Británií. Kolonie Nový Jižní Wales vznikla 26.1.1788

 Australia Day origin

Australia Day is celebrated to commemorate the creation of the first British settlement in Australia in 1788. On this day in 1788, Captain Arthur Philip and an advance party from his fleet entered Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour, Australia), which he described as „the finest harbour in the world“. A landing party was sent ashore. This was to be the site of the new settlement.

Den Austrálie je oslavován při příležitosti výročí založení první britské kolonie v roce 1788.V tento den připlul kapitán Arthur Phillip do Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) a nazval tuto zátoku nejkrásnější na světě. Toto místo se stalo základem nové kolonie.

 

Captain Philip started out for Australia from England on 13 May 1787, with more than 1,000 people aboard 11 ships. There were 736 convicts – 548 men and 188 women. The rest were members of the Royal Marines who were sent to protect the colony from attack. Thirty seven children were on board.

Kapitán Arthur Phillip vyplul z Británie 13.5.1787 s více než 1000 lidmi na palubách 11 lodí.Bylo zde 736 trestanců, 548 mužů a 188 žen. Ostatní byly členy Královského námořnictva, kteří sem byli posláni, aby chránili kolonii proti případnému útoku. Na palubě bylo také 37 dětí.

 

The colony of New South Wales was established by Captain Arthur Phillip. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia.

Byla založena kolonie s názvem Nový Jižní Wales. 1.1.1901 se 6 kolonií spojilo a vytvořilo Australské společenství.

In 1838 Foundation Day became the first public holiday in Australia.

V roce 1838 Den založení se stal prvním státním svátkem v Austrálii.

From 1888 was this day celebrated as „Anniversary Day“ in all states except Adelaide and from 1946 it became known as „Australia   Day“ in all states. It is a celebration of cultural diversity.

Od roku 1888 je tento den oslavován jako „Den Výročí“, v téměř všech místech kromě Adelaide a od roku 1946 je znám „Den Austrálie“ již ve všech státech. Je oslavou kulturní odlišnosti.

People celebrate this holiday in various ways. Some people have a picnic or barbecue and some play or watch sports.Other prefer going to concerts of festival. Sydney Harbour is the centre of the celebrations of Australia Day and many events can be seen there.

Lidé slaví různými způsoby. Někteří uspořádají piknik nebo opekání masa s posezením a jiní sportují nebo sport alespoň sledují. Další jdou na koncerty nebo festivaly. Centrem dění je přístav v Sydney (Sydney Harbour).

 

 

One of the most popular events is Ferrython. It is a race in which coloufully decorated First Fleet ferries compete to pass under the Sydney Harbour bridge first. Jednou z nejpopulárnějších akcí je Ferrython. Jedná se o závod pestře zdobených lodí, které soutěží o to, která první projede pod mostem v Sydney.

 

Basic facts about Australia :

  •  Capital : Canberra
  •  Official language : English
  •  Largest cities : Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, Adelaide
  • Population  : about 23 million inhabitants
  • Australia’s flag : The Union Jack with five stars that represent the constellation of the Southern Cross and a Large seven-pointed star for 6 states and 1 territory

 

 Interesting information about Australia :

  • Australia is the biggest island and the smallest continent in the world
  • Highest point is Mount Kosciuszko (2,228m)
  • The cleanest air in the world is in Tasmania, an Australian island state
  • The Murray River is the longest river in Australia at 2520km, combining with the Darling and Upper Darling Rivers to form the Murray-Darling basin
                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_Day

Hello magazine  4- 5/2012-2013 : Australia Day article , written by Slavka Kittova

 

 

 

December 2012

BBC World Service celebrates 80th Anniversary

 

The BBC World Service began as the BBC Empire Service in 1932 as a shortwave service aimed principally at English speakers in the outposts of the British Empire. This position was stated by King George V in his first Christmas Message by saying that the „men and women, so cut off by the snow, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them.“ First hopes for the Empire Service were low. The Director General, Sir John Reith (later Lord Reith) said in the opening programme: „Don’t expect too much in the early days; for some time we shall transmit comparatively simple programmes, to give the best chance of intelligible reception and provide evidence as to the type of material most suitable for the service in each zone. The programmes will neither be very interesting nor very good.“This address was read out five times as it was broadcast live to different parts of the world.

On 3 January 1938, the first foreign language service, Arabic, was launched. German programmes commenced on 29 March 1938 and by the end of 1942 broadcasts were being made in all major European languages. As a result, the Empire Service was renamed the BBC Overseas Service in November 1939, and a dedicated BBC European Service was added in 1941. These broadcasting services, financed not from the domestic licence fee but from government grant-in-aid (from the Foreign Office budget), were known administratively as theExternal Services of the BBC.

The External Services gained a special position in international broadcasting during the Second World War, as an alternative source ofnews for a wide range of audiences, especially those in enemy and occupied territories who often had to listen secretly. George Orwellbroadcast many news bulletins on the Eastern Service during World War II.The German Service played an important part in the propaganda war against Nazi Germany.

By the end of the 1940s the number of languages broadcast had expanded and reception had improved following the opening of a relay in modern day Malaysia and of the Limassol relayCyprus, in 1957. On 1 May 1965 the service took its current name of BBC World Service and the service itself expanded its reach with the opening of the Ascension Island relay in 1966, serving African audiences with greater signal and reception, and the later relay on the Island of Masirah.

In August 1985, the service went off the air for the first time when workers striked in protest at the British government‘s decision to ban a documentary featuring an interview with Martin McGuinness of Sinn Féin. The External Services were renamed under the BBC World Service brand in 1988.

  

 

 

November 2012

18.11.2012

143 years since Official Opening of Suez Canal

The Suez Canal , located in Egypt, is a 101 mile (163 km) long canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, a northern branch of the Red Sea. It officially opened in November 1869.

Suezský kanál se nachází v Egyptě a je 163km dlouhý.Spojuje Středozemní moře, Suezský záliv a severní část Rudého moře.Oficiální otevření kanálu se uskutečnilo 18.11.1869

 

Although the Suez Canal wasn’t officially completed until 1869, there is a long history of interest in connecting both the Nile River in Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. It is believed that the first canal in the area was constructed between the Nile River delta and the Red Sea in the 13th Century B.C.E. During the 1,000 years following its construction, the original canal was neglected and its use finally stopped in the 8th Century.

Myšlenka na propojení řeky Nil a Středozemního moře má dlouhou historii. Předpokládá se, že první kanál, který byl v této oblasti postaven se datuje do 13.století před naším letopočtem.  Následujících  1000 let byl však tento kanál zanedbáván a jeho používání ustalo v 8 století.

 

The first modern attempts to build a canal came in the late 1700s when Napoleon Bonaparte conducted an expedition to Egypt. He believed that building a French controlled canal on the Isthmus of Suez would cause trade problems for the British as they would either have to pay dues to France or continue sending goods over land or around the southern part of Africa. Studies for Napoleon’s canal plan began in 1799 but a miscalculation in measurement showed the sea levels between the Mediterranean and the Red Seas as being too different for a canal to be feasible and construction immediately stopped.

Další pokus v moderní době se datuje ke konci 17.století, když Napoleon Bonaparte podnikl výpravu do Egypta. Věřil, že zbudování Francouzi kontrolovaného kanálu může způsobit Britům obchodní problémy, ať už by musely platit poplatky Francii nebo posílali zboží  okolo jižní části Afriky. Plány začaly v roce 1799 ale chybný výpočet nadmořské výšky mezi Středozemním mořem a Rudým mořem způsobil, že byla výstavba kanálu okamžitě zastavena.

 

The next attempt to build a canal in the area occurred in the mid-1800s when a French diplomat and engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps, convinced the Egyptian viceroy Said Pasha to support the building of a canal. In 1858, the Universal Suez Ship Canal Company was formed and given the right to begin construction of the canal and operate it for 99 years, after which time, the Egyptian government would take over control of the canal. At its founding, the Universal Suez Ship Canal Company was owned by French and Egyptian interests.

 

Další pokus postavit kanál v této oblasti uskutečnil v polovině 18.století Francouzský diplomat a inženýr Ferdinand de Lesseps. Přesvědčil Egyptského místokrále Saida Pashu k podpoře výstavby kanálu. Byla ustanovena univerzální lodní společnost pro Suezský kanál a té bylo dáno právo k výstavbě a provozování kanálu na 99 let. Po této době převezme Egyptská vláda kontrolu nad kanálem. U založení společnosti byly Francouzské a Egyptské zájmové skupiny.

 

 

Construction of the Suez Canal officially began on April 25, 1859. It opened ten years later on November 17, 1869 at a cost of $100 million.

Výstavba Suezského kanálu započala 25.4.1859. Otevřen byl o 10 let později a náklady na samotnou výstavbu činily přibližně 100 milionů amerických dolarů

 

        

         

  

 

http://geography.about.com/od/specificplacesofinterest/a/suezcanal.htm

http://michelhoude.com/Waghorm/ImagesLTW/@WArticle.htm

 

October 2012

 

9.10.2012 World Post Day

 

World Post Day is celebrated each year on 9 October, the anniversary of the establishment of the Universal Postal Union (UPU) in 1874 in the Swiss capital, Bern. It was declared World Post Day by the UPU Congress held in Tokyo, Japan, in 1969.

 

photo : PA

 

 

September 2012

 

 Stockton & Darlington Railway

 The world’s first passenger railway service

The Stockton & Darlington Railroad, the world’s first passenger railway service was opened on 27 September 1825.On this day, George Stephenson’s steam engine Locomotion pulled a full load of passengers from Shildon to Stockton via Darlington. The 27 mile (43km) journey took less than 3 hours.

There were 32 wagons in the train, which pulled by the Locomotion travelled at about 10 miles per hour.

This event  marked the beginning of the railway age.

 

První osobní přeprava na železnici byla zahájena 27.9. 1825 na železniční trati Stockton -Darlington na severu Anglie. Lokomotiva No.1″Locomotion“, kterou sestrojil George Stephenson táhla  náklad 32 vagónů s cestujícími ze Shildonu do Stocktonu přes Darlington  rychlostí 10mil za hodinu.

Trasa byla dlouhá 27 mil (cca 43km) a trvala ne déle než 3 hodiny. Touto událostí započal věk železnice.

 

„In 1825 there were only 25 miles of public railroad open in the world. 50 years later this had grown to 160 000 miles and continued at amazing pace thereafter. In 1825 there were only 2 locomotives available for use on a public railway, by the turn of the century, this had increased to 70,000.The importance, magnitude and impact of the birth of the Stockton & Darlington Railway on the transport systems of the world cannot be measured.

written by John Metcalfe

 

V roce 1825 existovalo na světě pouze 25 mil veřejně provozovaných železničních tratí. O 50 let později počet vzrostl na 160 000 mil a pokračoval úžasným tempem stále dál. V tomtéž roce (1825) byly v provozu pouze 2 lokomotivy, začátkem příštího století už jich bylo 70 000. Není možné vyjádřit  význam, velikost a dopad zrodu železniční trati mezi Stocktonem a Darlingtonem na dopravu po světě.

John Metcalfe, railcentre.co.uk

 

source : projectbritainhttp://www.railcentre.co.uk

zahájení provozu na trati Stockton -Darlington

lokomotiva No.1 "Locomotion" z roku 1825

 

Darlington Railway Station

Nádraží v Darlingtonu

August 2012

 

Neil Alden Armstrong      

(*5.8.1930 –  †25.8.2012)

 

Neil Armstrong was born on 5 August 1930 in Wapakoneta Ohio. His family move around the state for most of his young life. Then they finally settled back in Wapakoneta in 1944.

Neil held many jobs around town, especially at the local airport as he was always fascinated with aviation. After starting flying lessons at the age of 15, he was awarded a pilots license on his 16th birthday, before he had earned a driver’s license. Naturally interested in aviation, Armstrong decided to pursue a degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Purdue University under the Holloway Plan

After serving as a naval aviator from 1949 to 1952, Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1955. His first assignment was with the NACA Lewis Research Center (now NASA Glenn) in Cleveland. Over the next 17 years, he was an engineer, test pilot, astronaut and administrator for NACA and its successor agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

 

He was assigned as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission in 1966. Gemini 8 was launched on March 16, 1966, and Armstrong performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space.

On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong was the first human to set foot on the Moon. As spacecraft commander for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, Armstrong gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the moon and first to step on its surface.

He was Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati between 1971-1979. During the years 1982-1992, Armstrong was chairman of Computing Technologies for Aviation, Inc., Charlottesville, Va.

He received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Purdue University and a Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Southern California. He holds honorary doctorates from a number of universities.

 

Neil Armstrong died on Aug. 25, 2012 following complications resulting from cardiovascular procedures. He was 82.

 

 

Timeline for Neil Armstrong

1930: Armstrong was born in Ohio

1949 to 1952: Navy pilot

1955: A test pilot for high-performance aircraft

1962: Selected by NASA to become an astronaut.

1966: First space flight

1968: Chosen, along with Edwin „Buzz“ Aldrin and Michael Collins, to be a member of the Apollo 11 mission

1969: First Man to step on the moon

1970: Resigned from the astronaut program

1971 to 1979: An engineering professor at the University of Cincinnati

1980: Chairman of Cardwell International, a supplier of oil-drilling equipment.

1986: Cochairman of the presidential commission investigating the explosion of space shuttle Challenger

 

Sources:  Project Britain, chasejarvis, NASA – Neil Alden Armstrong biography, space.about

 

 

 

One of the Neil Armstrong’s pictures of the Moon surface

read more about Neil Armstrong photographer here

July 2012

London 2012 olympics

July 2012

The city of London will host the 2012 Olympic Games this summer!

   

 

30th. Olympic Games

After hosting the Olympic Games in 1908 and 1948, London is all set to blaze the stadium for the third time! History reveals that London has always been a favorite nation for the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to host Olympic Games. London has strong historic roots in the Olympic Movements. Whether it was in 1908 or 1948, each time London has played an excellent Olympic host. Through its innovations and efficient deployment of technical and human resources, London stood by difficult times such as during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906 in Rome and also during World War II. Again, London is committed to display its best at various sports events to be held in 2012, which are scheduled between 27 July to 12 August 2012. With this, London will become the first city to host modern Olympic Games three times!

 

Po uspořádání her v letech 1908 a 1948 se Londýn stává olympijským dějištěm již po třetí. Historie odhaluje, že Londýn je stálým favoritem pro Mezinárodní Olympijský výbor pro pořádání olympijských her. Londýn má silné historické kořeny co se týče olympiád.

Ať už to bylo v roce 1908 nebo 1948 pokaždé byl skvělým hostitelem. Stejně tak i nyní může předvést to nejlepší co je k vidění v současnosti v různých olympijských sportovních disciplínách , jejichž konání je naplánováno mezi 27 červencem a 12 srpnem v roce 2012.

Londýn se tak stává prvním místem, které pořádá moderní olympijské hry již po třetí v historii.

Olympic Stadium

  • The Olympic Stadium will have a capacity of 80,000 spectators during the Games
  • It is the lightest Olympic stadium ever built
  • The fourteen lighting towers are needed because this the first Olympic Games with HD TV freeze-frame coverage that will be essential to capture the action
  • Part of the supporting structure of the roof is formed from 2,500 tonnes of steel tubing that was actually recycled from old gas pipelines
  • For construction were  used 4 times less steel than in Beijing „Bird’s Nest Stadium“

 

Olympijský stadión bude mít kapacitu 80 000 diváků. Je nejlehčím olympijským stadiónem, který byl kdy postaven. Navrženo je také 14 světelných ramp kvůli HDTV pokrytí. Část podpůrné struktury střechy stadiónu je vytvořena z 2500 tun oceli recyklované ze starých plynových trubek.Pro konstrukci stadionu bylo použito 4 x méně oceli než u tzv. ptačího hnízda v Pekingu. Stadión je navržen tak, že je možné jej v případě potřeby demontovat, jedná se o šroubovanou konstrukci.Střechu drží hydraulicky napnutá lana.
     

Olympics 2012 opening ceremony

Danny Boyle, Oscar-winning director of Slumdog millionaire and Trainspotting is also responsible for success of opening olympic games in London 2012.

 

 

June 2012

June 2012

Diamond jubilee of the Queen

60 years of The Queen’s reign - 60let  vlády Alžběty II.

On 2nd June 1953, the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II took place. Villages, towns and cities across the UK were decorated in red, white and blue bunting, and in London the roads were packed with people waiting to see the royal processions. For the first time  in history, the event was broadcast on TV.

2 června 1953 se konala korunovace královny Alžběty II. Vesnice, města a městečka po celé Velké Británii byla ozdobena vlajkami a Londýn se zaplněn lidmi, kteří chtěli vidět královskou přehlídku.Poprvé v historiii byla tato událost vysílána v televizi.

Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in Westminster Abbey in London, in a ceremony that lasted almost three hours, starting at 11:15 am.

Královna Alžběta II. byla korunována ve Westminsterském opatství a ceremonie, která trvala téměř 3 hodiny, začala v 11:15.

 

The crowning of the Sovereign is an ancient ceremony which has taken place at Westminster Abbey for over 900 years. Before the Abbey was built, Coronations were carried out wherever was convenient, for example at Bath, Oxford and Canterbury.

Korunovace panovníka je dávným obřadem který se ve Westminsterském opatství koná již více než 900let.Než bylo opatství postaveno, probíhaly korunovace na místech k tomu vhodných např. v Bathu, Oxfordu nebo v Canterbury.

Towards the end of the ceremony the Queen was handed the four symbols of authority:

  1. the orb - representing the Sovereign’s role as Defender of the Faith.
  2. the sceptre with the cross- representing Christianity over the British Empire (not politically correct today)
  3. the rod of mercy (sceptre with the dove) – symbolising the Holy Ghost
  4. the Coronation ring (often referred to as ‘The Wedding Ring of England’)
Ke konci obřadu byly královně předány 4 symboly autority. Říšské jablko – reprezentující roli panovnice jako ochránkyně víry.
Žezlo s křížem, představující křesťanství v celém Britském impériu ( dnes už to však neodpovídá skutečnosti). Hůlka milosrdenství – představující Svatého Ducha a korunovační prsten, zmiňovaný také jako svatební prsten Anglie.

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Geoffrey Fisher, then placed St Edward’s Crown on her head to complete the ceremony. The St. Edward’s Crown, made in 1661,weighs 4 pounds and 12 ounces and is made of solid gold

Arcibiskup z Canterbury Dr.Geoffrey Fisher poté položil korunu Svatého Edwarda na Alžbětinu hlavu aby dokončil obřad.Koruna byla vyrobena v r.1661 váží 4 libry a 12 uncí a je vyrobena z masivního zlata.

The Queen replaced her father, King George VI, as monarch following his death on 6 February 1952.

Královna nahradila svého otce krále Jiřího VI jako vladaře po jeho smrti 6.2.1952

Marking 60 years of The Queen’s reign, the Diamond Jubilee celebrations centred around an extended weekend on 2, 3, 4 and 5 June.

The Queen came to the throne on 6 February 1952 and her coronation took place on 2 June 1953. She celebrated her Silver Jubilee (25 years) in 1977 and her Golden Jubilee (50 years) in 2002.

 

Diamond jubilee events

The events to celebrate the Queen’s Jubilee will take place during an extended bank holiday weekend on June 2-5, 2012.To mark the Jubilee the Borough of Greenwich became a royal borough.Greenwich was chosen because it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the home of the Prime Meridian and Greenwich Mean Time.

      

 

May 2012

May 2012

May festivities

 

The first day of the month of May is known as May Day. It is the time of year when warmer weather begins and flowers and trees start to blossom. It is said to be a time of love and romance. It is when people celebrate the coming of summer with lots of different customs that are expressions of joy and hope after a long winter. copyright of protectbritain.com

Traditional English May Day celebrations include Morris dancing, crowning a May Queen and dancing around a Maypole.

http://projectbritain.com/mayday.htm

 

První den v měsíci květnu je nazýván v angličtině „May Day“. Je to období roku, kdy začíná teplejší počasí a květiny a stromy začínají kvést. Říká se také, že je to čas lásky a romancí. Lidé oslavují příchod léta mnoha tradicemi, vyjadřují tak radost a naději po dlouhé zimě.

K tradicím ve Velké Británii patří May Day včetně Morris Dancing, korunování Královny Máje a tancování okolo májky.

Morris Dancing  - A traditional dance seen throughout the month of May is Morris Dancing. It is a traditional English form of folkdancing, performed by groups of men or women. There are several thoughts to the origins of Morris Dancing. The name may refer to the possibility of the form of dancing coming to England from the Moors of North Africa; or it may have been called ‘Moor-ish’ simply because the dancers sometimes painted their faces black, and people compared this to the dark-skinned Moors.

 May Queen

There was dancing on the village green, archery contest and exhibitions of strength. The highlight of the day was the crowning of the May Queen, the human replica of Flora. By tradition she took no part in the games or dancing, but sat like a queen in a flower-decked chair to watch her ‘subjects’.

     

April 2012

April 2012

Easter and its origin

 

 

 

Eostre -Ostara – o této bohyni se praví, že  je bohyní východu slunce a jara.Místo, kde  vychází slunce (V Angličtině East) je spojené také s jejím jménem. Eastre je považováno za dávné slovo pro jaro.

Eostre – a pagan Anglo-Saxon Goddess
This mythical figure is said to have been the goddess of the sunrise and the spring. She is the Teutonic goddess of the dawn. The direction of the sunrise, East, is named for her. In Norse mythology, the name is spelled Eostare.Another considered the Norse/Saxon goddess of spring is Ostara. Eastre is believed to be an ancient word for spring.

 

http://www.allabouthistory.org/origin-of-the-word-easter-faq.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 Czech Republic Easter Symbols

• Easter Eggs and kraslice

Czech Easter EggsThe hand-painted or otherwise decorated egg (kraslice) is the most recognizable symbol of Czech Easter. Girls decorate Easter eggs to give them to boys on Easter Monday. There are many Easter egg decorating techniques and the more elaborate ones require a certain level of skill. Different materials can be used, such as bee’s wax, straw, watercolors, onion peels, picture stickers. The most common designs are probably geometrical patterns, but you can also see flowers, leaves or snowflake patterns in a whole range of colors. There are no limitations to creating pretty, colorful eggs.

 

Pussywillow and pomlázka

Young, live pussywillow twigs are thought to bring health and youth to anyone who is whipped with them. An Easter pomlázka (frompomladit or „make younger“) is a braided whip made from pussywillow twigs. It has been used for centuries by boys who go caroling on Easter Monday and symbolically whip girls on the legs. In the past, pomlázka was also used by the farmer’s wife to whip the livestock and everyone in the household, including men and children. There would be no Czech Easter without the pomlázka.

 

http://www.myczechrepublic.com/czech_culture/czech_holidays/easter/

 

 

 

 

 

April 1 –  All Fools Day

Vy ještě nevíte, že tučňáci se naučili létat? Opravdu ne? Tak se podívejte na tohle video.

 

You don’t know that penguins can fly? Really?

So watch this  video below.